What Is Thermodynamics. Important Terms Related To Thermodynamics ( Path, Process, Properties, State And Cycle)

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Thermodynamics is a part of science which is related with heat, temperature and energy. It is concerned with various forms of energy and its mutual conversion. The Thermodynamic behavior of different quantities or matter is controlled by 4 laws of thermodynamics. In this universe there is always a relation between any matter and energy. Thermodynamics is applicable in wide range of Science, Technology and Engineering world.

The motive of studying thermodynamics is to understand various forms of energy and develop the efficient energy systems.

Important terms related to thermodynamics

There are some important terms related to thermodynamics which is often used during thermodynamic analysis.

Thermodynamic Properties

Properties are the parameters which describes the nature and characteristics of a system. these parameters are used to define the thermodynamic system and its behaviour. Some examples of thermodynamic properties are pressure, volume, temperature, viscosity etc.

Properties are categorized into two parts "Intensive properties and extensive properties"

Intensive properties

Intensive properties are those which are independent of the mass of the system in which matter is enclosed. As the properties are independent of mass, the properties will have identical value at every point of the system. Examples of intensive properties are pressure temperature etc.

Extensive properties

Extensive properties are dependable on the mass of the system these properties do not have same value in the whole system. Examples of these properties are volume, viscosity, energy etc.

Thermodynamic State

State of a system can be defined as a certain position or condition in which properties of the system will have certain quantitative values. These Values defines a specific state. Changing these values will lead to the different state of the system. this change is called 'change of state'.

Thermodynamic Process

Due to the energy and mass transfers from the system and to the system, change of state takes place. This changing of state is called process. for example heating of a gas in a vessel can lead to change in pressure and temperature viscosity etc. In such ways properties of system can be altered and a thermodynamic process is completed.

Thermodynamic Path

Path is something when change of state happens repeatedly and series of process occurs. In the system this series of process can be traced by
a locii. that locii will be known as Thermodynamic Path.

Thermodynamic cycle

When a system undergoes to several process but at the last it gains its initial state from where the sequence of processes started, then the system is said to be completed a cycle. all in all the initial and final state will be same in a cycle. the cycle will have a closed loop path in the thermodynamic system.

Thermodynamic equilibrium

When the system do not undergo in change of state even when the external efforts are applied, then the system is said to be in Thermodynamic Equilibrium
To get a system in Thermodynamic Equilibrium it should be in equilibrium mechanically, thermally and chemically.

these are some important terms and parameters of thermodynamic. Although, thermodynamics is a broad subject but these terms are very significant. in each and every thermodynamic analysis the terms like path, process, cycle, properties are always used.

System, Surroundings, Boundary and Universe in thermodynamics - types of systems (open, closed, isolated)

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These are some common definitions associated with the basic thermodynamics. every thermodynamic study and analysis is related with these terms. let's get a quick review on these terms.

Thermodynamic System

thermodynamic system is the place which contains certain quantity of matter in which thermodynamic processes happens and thermodynamic analysis can be carried out. in the system the matter will consist of certain properties which can be altered by different processes like transfer of mass and energy.

Thermodynamic System


Everything external to the system i.e. the outside environment is called surrounding to the system.

Boundary of the System

Boundary is something which separates the system and the surroundings. the boundary can be real or imaginary. sometimes a relative boundary is considered so the boundary can be at rest or in a motion.


The combination of system and surroundings is called Universe i.e. when both system and the surroundings are kept together they can be referred as universe.

Types of System

there are three types of systems that are recognized-
1. Open System
2. Closed System
3. Isolated System

Open System

Open Systems are those in which both Mass and Energy can be inserted and can be took out from it. This system is open to any intersection of mass and energy.

Closed System

Closed system is one in which mass remains constant i.e. mass can not be added or subtracted but energy can be manipulated.

Isolated system

Isolated System is one in which mass and energy both can neither be added nor be subtracted from the system.

Electron Beam Welding Process

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Electron Beam Welding in an unconventional Method to Join the two materials. In this two pieces of material are fused by a high speed beam of electrons. The electron beam imposed to the materials will loose its kinetic energy and convert it into the heat energy. this heat energy is used for the fusion of metal Work-piece. The Vacuum medium is required to get a proper flow of electron beam and prevent dissipation of electron.
Electron Beam Welding Process

Advantages of Electron Beam Welding

There is no need to use any filler material.

Electron beam welding enables the single pass welding of thick joints.

There is less chance of impurities to enter into the vacuum medium so the welding would be more efficient.

Hermetic seals of components are uses to retain a vacuum medium for successful welding operation.

Electron beam welding offers the joining of dissimilar materials.

The chances of welding defects to occur is less.

Heat generated by electron fusion will affect fewer area of the specimen.

Disadvantages of Electron Beam Welding

The initial equipment and operational cost is high

The size of specimen depends on the vacuum equipment.

The process of electron beam welding is a time consuming process

In the electron beam welding rapid solidification is required that causes cracks.

What does TDI stands for and how TDI Engine technology Works

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TDI stands for "Turbocharged Direct Injection". TDI is a fuel injection system in a diesel vehicles. A fuel injection system Plays a vital role in the design of a car. The car owner should know about the technology used for the injection system and his / her car. The terms like CRDI and TDI are very common in automobile engineering. The world wide famous brand Volkswagen uses TDI fuel injection Technology in their vehicles.
TDI Line Diagram : Source

TDI ( Turbocharged Direct Injection ) Working Principle

Tdi has the facility of turbo charging and direct fuel injection into the engine cylinder. The fuel injector injects the fuel into the engine and spray it in the combustion chamber. The direct injection atomizes the fuel and transfer it to the combustion chamber. Turbocharger present and system increase the amount of air during combustion or when intake of fuel takes place. It helps in better combustion.

An intercooler is provided in the TDI that help in lowering the temperature. Due to this the amount of fuel injected can be increased for combustion.TDI has less open surface which helps cut down the heat losses and ultimately increase the engine efficiency.

This useful Technology was developed by Volkswagen group. Most of the vehicles of Volkswagen group uses this technology in their vehicles. Volkswagen uses this technology in the commercial vehicle and marine engines. With the use of this technology vibes great power and more efficiency.

Properties Of TDI in Diesel Engine

1. TDI uses turbocharger from exhaust to increase the engine power and efficiency.

2.If we compare the efficiency orbit Technologies, CRDI seems to win. The reason is that CRDI uses sensor and has injector pipe to provide the fuel as per the necessity. So in this criteria CRDI is better than TDI.

3.The cost of TDI engine is less. but TDI is less efficient so it Consume more fuel and money. in other words, operational cost of TDI is expensive than other fuel injection technology like CRDI. 

4. TDI is specially developed exclusively for Volkswagen group Vehicles..

5.The design of TDI Technology is simple.

6.Maintenance of TDI is Economical.

What is Anvil. What are anvil parts

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Anvil is a large and heavy weight metallic block used in metal working. anvil is key tool in the forging process. in metal working anvil provide base to a specimen. during the forging process the workpiece is to put on the anvil and the hammer is used to deliver sudden impacts. Anvil has a flat surface where workpiece is placed.


Anvil is a dense metallic, high strength, high toughness and high endurance tool. It has to resist high pressure and sudden impacts applied on it.

Parts of anvil

there are different parts of anvil with different purposes.


Anvil face is the primary surface where most of the job work is done. anvil face is generally made of hardened steel. it is has to resist most of the load or pressure applied into it. the tampering of anvil is done to make it tougher. the material of higher strength and higher toughness than the material of anvil face should not be used as it can damage the Anvil face. so the materials like hardened Steel, cast iron should be avoided.


Horn is a part of anvil placed near to the face. It is a cone shaped part used for spherical or round shaped works. Horn is a necessary part for bending processes of a metallic rod. Horn is a placed parallel to face which is separated by step.


There is an area between the face and horn that called Step. The separation of face and horn prevent the damage of one another part when an operation is going on. When Horn is being used it may affect the face and vice-versa. But step prevent it. Step is also useful for cutting purposes.


the base part should be such that it do not displace from its position when high pressure is applied on it. that's why the base of high strength to weight ratio is required. Sometimes the wooden base is used in the anvil.

Hardie hole

it is a square hole into which certain tool can be placed. these tools are used for forming purposes such as punching, bending etc.

Pritchel hole

it is a round shaped hole generally used for punching operations

What is Bench vice. What are the parts Bench vice.

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Bench vice is a holding tool. It is the most used or most popular type of holding tool. the specimen on which job work is to be performed is fixed secured tightly in the bench vice and then mechanical work can be performed on a bench vice. 
bench vice is a non portable tool as the name suggests, this voice is mounted on a bench.
Bench Vice

Parts of bench vice

There are five main parts of a bench vice described below


Body is an outer part and main body of vice. body contains base of bench vice this base is attached with the bench to establish a strong mounting with Bolt and nuts.


Slider is the part which will move to and fro directions. the slider will help mounting or Demounting of the specimen for job work in the bench vice.


Screws is connected with the slider.  with the help of the screw, slider will be capable to move forward and backward directions. Screw will move on the Threads provided in the vice.


There is a pair of jaw is used. between this jaw the specimen is placed. one Jaw is fixed which is placed in the main body part. the other movable jaw is placed in slider which will move along with the slider.


Handle is a part to control the movement of the slider. handle will be rotated to hinge or unhinged The specimen between the Jaws and by the forward and backward motion of the slider. The rotation of the handle will be converted into the sliding movement by the threads.

These are all the main parts of a bench vice. Bench vice is most used holding tool amongst all. Fitter works can not be imagined without it.