Wednesday, November 29, 2017

The overall development of a new product is not an easy task. There are many steps that needs to be followed very carefully for a successful development of new product. Here you will be familiar with all the necessary steps that every organisation follow to develop a new product. New part development is a long process, the key steps included in this process are recognition of need of product, design, testing, final manufacturing.
the overall process for new part development is given step by step below.

Need of the product or idea generation

For any new product development, the very first thing that is required is the base of product development and that is the initial recognition of the product. Recognition of product can happen by two means.

'Need of the product'- the need can be generated by any means such as we need to improve a system, we need to modify a product, we need a machine to make a manual system automatic and many more such needs can lead you to develop a new product. Based on the need the product is initialized.

the second cause of recognition for a new product is idea generation. What if you got an idea of a product that can ease a task. If you got an idea of a product that can save someone's precious time. What if you've got an idea that improve our working system to another level. The science and engineering is all about inventions and new ideas are always welcomed. in engineering reducing the work time is major thing for an organisation.

So this is how you can get recognition of a product. once someone gets frame of a product in his mind then only the next step can be taken. 

Product specification

In this step the idea will be analysed very carefully. It is specified that whether the idea is worthy to implement, how much change it can bring and is it necessary to bring such a new product.

The need of tools, equipments and other facilities would be determined. It should be analysed whether the company have required resources that can fulfill the requirement of tools manpower etc.

The customer's interest is a big factor. Product must be such that it can be sold easily within the available market of the organisation these are some factors which a new ideas should be comply with. To develop a successful product these factor must be expected to have positive feedback. Organisation's Team should decide these things and should take appropriate decision.

Ergonomics and Aesthetics

These terms are related with human factor and are extremely important. Economics is all about the study of human relation with a product. What affects a product will impose on the user of that product should be analysed. What improvement our product needs to better comply with the human use should we find out and implemented. In product design ergonomics is the assessment of human related with the product from the time of its initial recognition, then design and manufacturing of the product and till it reached to the consumers. The human factors should be considered even when the manufacturing of the product will happen that whether it is safe and comfortable for manufacturers and workers. Although mainly ergonomics deals with the user friendliness, ability and limitations of the product for user etc. 
Aesthetics is all about making the product visually correct and improve ergonomically.

Conceptual design and analysis

This is initial stage after designing such as drafting and concept testing. In the drafting the engineering drawing or design softwares can be used. Softwares like AutoCAD is very common for drafting in manufacturing industry. Drafting is an easy way to get a pictorial view of final product.

For conceptual testing and analysis certain properties of the product should be determined. It should be estimated that whether the consumer will understand importance of the product. Basically, is it helpful for them. why the consumer need that particular product. A survey between the targeted consumers is a good idea of getting these information as their feedback about the product.

Business analysis

in this step all the factors related with the business and marketing should be considered. Market is a broad aspect for making a product successful. Product needs to be made commercially profitable by business professionals. Costs of the product should be determined by the analysts such that it has less cost for consumers and earns best value for the company. analysts also forecast the expected sales of the product. Promotion of the product is a bigger part in marketing so it should be decided how much money would be spent on advertisement and promotion. All the strategies should be made by business analyst and followed by the organisation. These are some factors which company should study to make the product successful in the business point of view.

Detailed design

After the business Analysis The detailed designing of the product is done. Design and testing is very important to make a products functioning well while it is in consumers hand. The design engineers will perform this task by using their skills. It is quite a difficult task and takes lot of time. As per the required functioning of the product, the shape, size, weigh etc are decided. There are many designing softwares nowadays which plays a vital role in the designing. The softwares will help designing the product very accurately. Product will be visible as it will be after the manufacturing in these softwares. But designing is not only using  this software. Many more things needs to be decided and implemented such as the type of material based on strength, life of the product, manufacturing cycle etc. 
This steps should be accomplished carefully and proper time should be given to the design personnel. This step makes a product to perform at its best. The design failure can destroy the whole idea of product development.

Prototype development

After the design of a product. A prototype of the product is manufactured. The prototype is the replica of the product and generally, it is made without proper tools because tools are not developed before this step. So There are other ways of manufacturing by which a prototype will be developed. Prototype is used to Check the proper functioning and performance. Since the proper tools are not used the product components can be somewhat inaccurate dimensionally. It should be competent enough so that required inspection of functioning can be done. it's just to have some idea of the actual product. Design and production personnel should decide after inspection that the prototype is functioning as per Expectations or not and whether the product will be useful.

Testing and simulation

Testing and simulation are done to inspect overall performance of the product virtually. Virtually in the sense of using testing and simulation softwares for this purpose. The design of the product made on the designing software will be used and the simulation software and simulation will be performed. In the simulation the strength of the product, limits of stress strain, possible cause of failure can be determined. the important advantage of using testing software is that we can change some condition and test the product for these various conditions for example we can check strength of the product for various type of material, surrounding properties like pressure temperature etc. In this way the testing and simulation of a product can be performed. ANSYS is one of the example of these testing software. 

Tool design for manufacturing

When the product will get clearance after designing and simulation it is considered to be fit for manufacturing regularly. that is why we need proper tools of that product. At this time also the design personnel play a vital role to analyse the number of tools based on each component of the product. for every component of the product different tool can be designed. Once the designing of the tool is completed, the design will be provided to the tool manufacturing department who will manufacture the exact tool as per the design. Skilled worker are required for tool manufacturing because there is a need for extremely accurate dimensions of the tool for accurate manufacturing.

Tool design for assembly

The Assembly tools are different from the component manufacturing tools. generally component manufacturing tools are material removal or cutting tools but assembly tools are material joining tools. the tools should be designed such that all the components can be placed appropriately and the joining can be performed. The joints can be made by many ways. Welding, fitting, bolt joints, riveted joints etc can be used to join the various components of the product.

Commercialization of the product

Commercialisation of the product is the introduction of the product in the market in a bigger scale i.e. For selling purpose. The organisation Makes many efforts to promote its product. The electronic media, print media and Internet are the mediums on which the company invest lot of money for the advertisement purpose. The company organise advertisement campaigns in these mediums. Advertisement  makes consumers aware of the product and these are the ways by which the commercialization is done.

Market review

Once the product is reached to the consumers then the company will assess the total sale and profit of the product. That can help to decide the market environment. A company should organise a survey among the consumers to understand whether the consumers are satisfied with the product. the profit of distributors and retailers should also be kept in mind. These are some of the factors to understand the performance of the product on the basis of market reviews. necessary changes should be made to the product the if required after getting the market reviews. Monitoring of performance should be done continuously.


This whole procedure is for product development in automobile industry. The procedure can be different in Other industries. the organisation has to follow these steps for a successful creation of anew product. Product development is the real work for engineers and the organisation because new products sets the new trends. the overall profit of the organisation can be increased with the new product development.

Monday, November 13, 2017

The Automatic controls is a modern day science which is very useful to make a system to perform its function accurately and effectively. The system in which automatic control is used, the human operator is replaced with a device or control unit that controls system and make the system to perform it's desired function. There are many examples of this kind of systems which are being used in a large scale in manufacturing industry such as CNC machines VMC machines etc.

Automatic control makes the system to to work faster, get high production rate, increase accuracy, reduce the tolerance limits and reduce the labour requirement. Automatic control system. is also called self activated system.

Terms used in automatic control systems

In the automatic control systems following are the basic terms used


A signal to get a movement or adjustment in the system is known as command such as opening  a valve, Moving a link etc.


As the command is given, the result acquired as per that command is called response.

Process control

In the system there are some variable at which the whole system works are controlled automatically. This is called process control. variables like pressure temperature can we changed as per the need.

Process controller

To control the variables of the system the devices are need to be Incorporated. These devices are called process controller.


This is very important component of automatic control system. This is the output value of the system which is compared with the input given the system.


When there is a need of keeping the value of variables at a constant value there is a device name 'regulator' is used.

Error detector

This is a device which uses differential method to detect any error in the system. It compares the output value with the actual desired value of the system. Through this comparison the error in the automatic control system can be detected.

Lag in response

As the result obtained from the command given to the system is called response. In an automatic control system, when there is a delay to obtain the response from the command from due to some causes, delayed is called lag in response. This delay causes the difficulty in the measurement of input and output at the same time.


The process of increasing the amplitude of the signal is called amplification. When there is a need to change the intensity of the input signal amplification method is used. And there is an error in the system detected by the error detector. The error detector is not able to correct that error by itself. Hence the amplitude of the input signal has to be amplified to eliminate that error and get the desired output.


This is a unit that takes the input and converts it into another form get to get the desired result. For example there are Some devices which takes pressure as input and converts it into the form of distance to indicate the value of the pressure. Other examples are speedometer, ammeter which converts voltage into the angular distance.

Types of automatic control systems

Automatic control system are categorized in two parts.

Open loop system

In this automatic control system. Input and output are independent of each other then the control system is known as open loop system. Most of the measuring instruments and equipment are based on the open loop system mechanism. Some examples of open loop system are pressure gauges, venturi meter used in carburetor to adjust the air fuel ratio.

Closed loop system

When the output of the system is connected with the input such that output is compared with the input which makes the output dependable to the input of the system then this type of control system is called closed loop system. A feedback system is Incorporated which measures the output continuously and provide the signal back to the input system. This helps to detect any error present in the system in an efficient manner.

Block diagram

Block Diagram

In a control system block diagrams are used to demonstrate the automated system into a simplified manner. block diagram will consist of every component associated with the system. Blocks represents the functioning of a particular component. A block is nothing but just a rectangle which is labelled properly as per its own function. These rectangular blocks are connected with each other by arrows or lines to show the proper process flow of the system functioning.

Transfer function

Transfer function is a method or expression to show the relation between input function and output function. It is simply the ratio of output function to the input function.

Transfer function =Ro/Ri  

where,  Ro = Output of the control system
            Ri = input of the control system.

Hence, if the transfer function of a system is known then output can be found by multiplying the transfer function with the input function.

Overall transfer function

In the system, if there are more than one blocks are being used. Then the overall transfer function will be the multiplication of separate transfer functions of each block. The thing to understand here is that the output of the first block will be the input for the 2nd Block and the same will be followed for rest of the blocks.

Transfer functions for both the types of control systems can be understood as per the following.

Open - Loop Transfer Function

in the open loop system, the several elements are aligned as a system as per the given diagram. we have to find the overall transfer function of the whole system.
Open loop transfer function

Consider a open loop system with three block F1, F2  and F3. For the first block Ri is input and R1 is Output. in the same way next two blocks will have inputs and outputs. Ro Will be final output of the system.

The transfer function will be calculated as

(Ro/Ri)=F1(x)*F2(x)*F3(x) = KG(x)


Close - loop Transfer Function

in the close loop system more than one blocks are implemented with a feedback system to determine any error present in the system. transfer function will be calculated by considering that feedback system and error in the control system.

Close loop block diagram

Consider a close loop system having three blocks F1, F2 and F3. the input to the system is given from the first block as Ri. and overall output of the system is Ro. the information of Ro will be provided to the input block where error detector is incorporated .

here R1 = Ri-Ro
then (Ro/R1) = Ro/(Ri-Ro) = KG(x)

where KG(x)= F1(x)*F2(x)*F3(x)

then Ro=Ri*KG(x)-Ro*KG(x)

(1+KG(x))*Ro = Ri*KG(x)

then Ro/Ri =KG(x)/(1+KG(x)


Automatic control system is a wide subject. lop of development has happened and lot of development is still going on.  this article is just an introduction to the automatic control system and i will write some application part to the automatic control in future.

Sunday, November 5, 2017

The strength of any material is largely depends on the internal stresses, strains or forces present in the material. In a structure or machine the consideration of the stresses are one of the most essential things during the design and preparation of the structure. The designer should have complete knowledge of the stresses to prepare a safe design. Two very important forces are need to be understood while designing a structure, forces or stresses are tension and compression. These internal stresses are present in every material or structure.
These forces are easy to understand by the following definitions

‘Tension’ is the force that pulls out the material axially in both the opposite directions.

‘Compression’ is the force that pushes the material axially from both the ends of the material.

Material is widely classified on the basis of its ability to withstand these stresses. Some materials are good in withstanding the tension and some are good with compression. The material's ability of resisting the stresses is one of the most important criteria for selecting a material to build a strong structure.


tension force illustration

Tension force acts outward to a specimen in both ends. It is pulling of material along an axis. Imagine the force experienced by a rope in the game of tug of war. The Rope is pulled from both ends and the force experienced by the Rope is tension force. In The structures bridges, belt pulley, rope pulley etc. This force is present in these system.


compressive force 

Compression force act inward to a specimen in both ends. It is pushing of the specimen from both ends along an axis. When a small shaft is pushed from both ends or a spring is pushed from both ends the string collapse. In both cases and the spring will experience a compression force.

While building a bridge these forces must be considered because tension and compression both are present in all the bridges. These forces can lead to the damage in the bridge if not measured and controlled. Bridges or structures are able to sustain the varying loads. So that tension and compression should be tested in varying loads in the bridges if tension and compression is not controlled in varying loads the bridge can lead to buckling.

Tensile and compressive stresses

Stresses are the forces developed within a material when the material is subjected to the external forces. So the stresses are internal forces of a material that opposes or resist the externally applied forces. This internal resistance force per unit area in a material is known as stress. Stresses are the intensity of force uniformly distributed in the unit area
If the force is P and area is A, then

Tensile stress

When tension force is applied on the specimen, the material tend to elongate axially. Then the internal forces develop inside the material as the reaction force to the applied force. This force resist the applied external force. This internal stress called tensile stress. So the tensile stress is the initial resisting force per unit area.
If the applied force is denoted by the symbol F and the tensile stress due to this force is 
σ then
Where is the cross sectional area of the object.
The tensile stress widely depends on the cross section of the object. This can be proved by performing tensile test on the cylindrical bar of different cross sections. For larger area we need more force or are breaking load then as in smaller cross sectional area objects. Intensity of force is a major factor in the specimen. This intensity of force is called stress.

Compressive stress

Compressive stress has opposite nature as of tensile stress. Because the contraction of size of the object happens. A squeezing force is applied that results in compressive stress in the material. This stress is also defined as the force per unit area, same as the tensile stress. Used to denote the compressive stress is also same. When compression force is applied in the object, the compressive stress generate inside the body to resist applied force. The formula is same for compressive stress. The compressive or tensile stress is recognized as per the direction of forces acting on the body. The magnitude of compressive stress depends on the compressive force applied on the object.

Tensile and compressive force acts perpendicular to the surface of the object. That is why these are called direct stresses. One has to recognize whether the stresses are tensile or compressive by the direction of forces acting on the object because this is what the main difference between them.

Tensile and compressive strains

On the application of tensile and compressive forces the change in the axial length of the material happens. This change or displacement per unit length is described as strain. Strain is the ratio of change in the length of material to the initial length of the material. The initial length is l and the change in length is ∆l, then
 Strain €=∆l/l
Strain also depends on the type of force applied on object because inland happens according to the direction and nature of force.

Tensile strain

When tensile force is applied to the object, the object tend to elongate and the length of the object increases. The ratio of the change or increment in the length and the original length is called tensile strain.

Compressive strain

When compressive force is applied on the specimen, then it turned in contraction in the size of the specimen. The ratio of change or size contraction in the length and the original length of the object is called compressive strain. Due to the contraction in size a negative (-) sign is used in the formula of compressive strain.
Strain is a non-dimensional quantity and a key factor while studying elastic properties of Material because theory of elasticity totally depends on the study of stress and strain. The negative sign in compressive strain is very important while solving the problem related with stress and strain.

Stress-Strain curve for brittle and ductile material

Stress-strain curves are very essential tool to analyze the properties and performance of a material. In the tensile test, a curve is drawn between the stress and strain. The curve has the information of tensile strength, yield point, breaking point etc. This curve helps in the analysis of the important properties of Material and behavior of that material under load.

Stress strain curve for brittle material

The tensile test is performed in the brittle material such as high speed Steel. Tensile stress is applied until the material rupture takes place. Due to brittleness the breaking of material will not take much time and elongation of the material will be less. Stress is applied till the material breaks. The curve generated in the graph can provide bit information about the material. In the beginning, car starts with a straight line. Till this line ends in the curve material remains elastic and follows hooks law. Then on increasing the stress, the plastic deformation of the material starts and strain starts increasing and there is a bend in the curve can be seen.
stress-strain curve for brittle material

Before the bend in the curve start, the material follows hooks law. That is why the stress-strain curve is linear. On the application of more stress limit of proportionality is crossed and non-linearity in the graph curve starts. After this the permanent elongation in the material occur till we remove the load.
The stress-strain curve for tensile and compressive load are quite similar. The difference is the limit of proportionality and stress applied. The loading condition can be very different in both the kisses.

Stress-strain curve for ductile material

Ductile material shows more elongation in the object then brittle material in the tensile test. In the ductile material breaking of object happens after a bigger elongation in the material. Materials like low carbon steel, brass, copper, aluminum, polymers are some examples of ductile material stretched into bigger length. The stress-strain curve of ductile materials is very different from brittle material.
stress-strain curve for ductile material

When the load starts to apply on material the curve first goes as a straight line. Then on increasing load father, we have to decrease it immediately to balance the equilibrium. Due to this sudden reduction in stress, a spike in the curve occurs. After this the strain in the material start increasing. At a point where stress attains its maximum value but strain keep increasing even after that. This week value of stress is called 'ultimate stress'. One of the reason of increasing strength after ultimate stress is the reduction in cross sectional area of the object. At the end of the curve the rupture in the material happens. The reduction of cross sectional area in tensile load is called 'necking'.
The stress-strain curve in the compressive test is quite similar to the tensile test. But the curve in the compressive test is drawn on the negative axes.

Proof stress

While performing a tensile and compressive test, it is difficult to define yield stress of the material. Theoretically proof stress is similar to yield stress but in the tensile compressive test the exact position of limit of proportionality is difficult to determine. Because of this problem the term 'proof stress' is introduced. Definite amount of stress required to generate the fix value of strain. Like 0.1% stress of total load produces 0.1% of the strain. So the proof stress is the point where permanent formation occur in material testing.

Creep and fatigue in material under stresses


When a material is subjected to the stress for longer i.e. the continuous stress is applied on the material the slow deformation with the stress takes place. When the temperature below the limit of proportionality, the deformation in the material happens slowly when the temperature is increased the material undergo to creep more rapidly. In this process the strain in the material developed and this strain is called creep.


Fatigue is little different from creep. That type of stress in the fatigue is cyclic loading. When a material is subjected to cyclic loading. After a time period the strain starts to develop in the material. This strain starts developing even at the lower value of stress than yield stress. Due to cyclic loading minute cracks in the material starts developing which is caused by stress concentration on the material.


Tension and compression is basics in the subject of strength of material. That is why it is very important part of this subject. The study of stress is very crucial part of studying the nature of a structure. There are more many type of stresses which material has to sustain. But the direct stresses like tensile and compressive stress are most important one. During the designing of any structure, machine, bridge this direct stresses has to consider for a successful design preparation.

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Die is a special tool used to change shape of sheet metal by cutting and non cutting actions.
In the process of designing a die for a particular required specimen, you need to understand the basic sheet metal die components. There are many types of die which are used in the sheet metal operations.

Die plate

This is a part to which all the parts of die are attached so basically this is an elementary hub to connect all parts of die. It is made of steel. Die plate size depends on the required product after operation in the die.

Die set

An assembly which consists of both die shoes is called die set.

Shoes of die

There are two Types of shoes in the die. Upper shoe and lower shoe. These two shoes are combined together with the help of Guide pin. The shoe thickness is directly proportional to the expected force to apply on the die during operation.

Guide pin, bushing, back gauge

These are the components to guide the tool towards the required direction. These parts ensures how the tool is going in the same position in every stroke of operation in the die. Basically the parts establishing an alignment between upper and lower part of a die. These components are of two types, friction pins and ball bearing pins.

Heel blocks and heel plates

These parts are employed in the die to absorb the side thrust (if any) that generates in the die during operation. The Precision is required while machining these objects while making the die.


Screws are the components to join the various working parts and components together i.e. Upper part and lower part of die are fastened through screw. Socket head is the most common screw for dies. 


Keys are rectangular blocks machine with high precision dimension for a hole. Keys are to be inserted in the Milled key way sections or pocket holes in the shoes of the die.


Dowels are the types of pins used to fix the sections to a desired location precisely on the die shoes.


Pads in the die are the plates employed for pressure loaded on the die during the operation it hold and control the metal.


Pads used in the die needs to be fastned with the shoes. For that purpose, the spools are the components to be used. 


To supply the appropriate force from press to die to complete the operation, the various types of springs are used. The life of spring and force required are the factors that needs to be considered while selecting an appropriate spring.

Bolster plate

The part which is used to Mount the die assembly is called bolster plate. It support the die block and locate it at right place

Guide post

This is an important part that connect the upper die shoe to the lower die shoe. It is a hard metallic rod connected by using the bushings in upper and lower die parts. Guidepost plays the key role to guide the punching tool towards the specimen to perform the operation.

Guide post bushings

Guide post bushing is a hollow part made of steel inside which the guide post travels in sliding motion. 


Punch is the main tool for cutting or forming operation to get the desired product. It is attached to the upper die set in a Press machine. This tool Contacts to the specimen and shape it as per the requirement. Both type of operations i.e. Cutting or forming are performed using this tool.

Stripper plate

Stripper plate used to hold the specimen on the die when tool cut off or strip the material.

This is all about the sheet metal die components. For a tool design engineer these are the basic fundamentals about the die preparation in the tool room. The automobile industry uses these manufacturing processes in a very wide market. Both conventional or unconventional manufacturing methods needs die along with press machine or with CNC or VMC machines. Every parts of sheet metal die components are to be designed to get a working die to manufacture a desired product by cutting or forming operations.

Thursday, October 12, 2017

In the study of theory of machine there are many basic terms to understand. The basic motive of studying theory of machine is to learn machine building. For that purpose there is a need to understand the elementary terms or parts that indulge in the machine building process. These elementary terms are kinematics chain, links, joints, degree of freedom, constraints etc. 

The kinematic pair is very important aspect to understand in theory of Machines.
The classification of kinematics pair, the most important one is based on the point of contact. On that basis kinematics pair are of two types. These are Lower pair and higher pair

Lower pair

When two elements of a pair are joined together with the surface contact between them the joint is called lower pair. Area of two elements comes together when relative motion occurs between the elements to form a lower pair.

The elements has sliding motion mutually in a lower pair because of surface contact. Basic kinematic pair like prismatic pair, revolute pair, screw pair, are some examples of lower pair.
lower pair

Lower pair joints

The joints which comes under lower pair are described with degree of freedom and there motions with that joint.

Prismatic joint
is a lower pair which has one directional translatory motion and has degree of freedom = 1. This means Prismatic joint has constraint in 5 directions.

Revolute joint
has one directional rotational motion and therefore degree of freedom =1. The three translatory and two rotational motions has constraints in the revolute joint.

Screw joint - this is a special case. Screw joints has translatory and rotational motion but both are not independent. When screw rotates with the threads, it also moves in linear motion because of threads. Its degree of freedom is calculated =1.

Cylindrical joints has one rotation and one translation independently. So its degree of freedom is 2.

Planar joints has one rotation and two translatory motion. That is why its degree of freedom =3.

Higher pair

Higher Pair

In The higher pair, only one point or line are responsible to form a joint between two links. The elements of higher pair must have curve in its shape. These joints are found in the cylinders or spheres of equal or different radius which have their axis parallel to each other. A cylinder or sphere lying on a flat surface has a point Contact and makes a higher pair. The relative motion of cam and follower makes a point Contact between them. The point of contact between two involute gear meshing makes a higher pair. These are some basic examples to explain the higher pair better.

Wednesday, October 11, 2017

The study of rigid body or rigid link is a subject of mechanics. Lot of studies can be done on rigid bodies. Rigid body kinematics and rigid body dynamics are the subject of analysis to understand the nature of a rigid body . The rigidness of a body is desirable while making kinematic links in a machine or structure.
Rigid body rotation

Define rigid body

A Rigid body is one which do not change its shape or size on the application of force. While force is applied on the rigid body very small change in shape that is negligible can happen.It means rigid body possess high stiffness property.In other words we can say that a body which do not deform on the application of force is called rigid body. The distance between two atoms remains same on applying the force in rigid body as it was without any force.

When a solid body is taken as in ideal form it is called rigid body so we can say that the perfect rigid body do not exist in the reality. Some solid body which has very few deformation on the application of force is considered as rigid body. Due to this idealization the rigid body is considered to have uniform mass distribution. To understand the behavior of rigidbody i.e. Dynamics and kinematics of it, you have to understand the Euler’s equations.

Kinematics of rigid body

In the Kinetics of rigid body the position of a rigid body and the moment of rigid body are the aspects to cover.

The position of rigid body

The position of all the particles of rigid body is the position of rigid body as a unit. The analysis of three non-collinear particles in a rigid body is enough to covers whole rigid body position for analysis.
The position of rigid body deals with two categories
Linear position and angular position

Linear position

It is the position of a point in the body which coincides with the centre of mass of the body. The position is represented by a vector.

Angular position

It represents the orientation of the body. To understand the orientation of the rigid body Euler's equation should be considered. This equation helps to observe the motion of rigid body in a coordinates system.

Velocity of a rigid body

Velocity of a rigid body also have same categories as the position of rigid body i.e. linear velocity and angular velocity.

Linear velocity

The change in the position of a rigid body with respect to time is called linear velocity. It is a vector quantity. The linear velocity is calculated when the body has no rotational motion in it because if the body has rotation then the instantaneous velocity of two particles might not be same.

Angular velocity

Angular velocity is the change in the orientation to describe the angular speed of a particle in the rigid body. It is a vector quantity. When rotation in a rigid body takes place, all the particles in the body feels the identical angular velocity.angular velocity is not the rate of change of angular position.

Rigid body rotation

The change the position of a rigid body (i.e. Linear and angular position) with respect to time is called the rotation of rigid body. the diagram given above explains the terms or factors involve in the rotation of a rigid body.

Rigid body dynamics

In the rigid body dynamics the study of application of external forces rigid body is carried out. It is basically the study of behavior, motion, kinematics, kinetics etc. of a rigid body under external forces.

As the deformation do not takes place in the body as per the assumption of the rigid body, it simplifies the analysis of rigid body dynamics by reducing the parameters for consideration for analysis.

The analysis is carried out with the help of laws of motion  and laws of kinematics. These laws explain the position, speed, and acceleration etc of a rigid body with respect to time.

Examples of rigidbody.

As the stiffness is main factor of a rigid body so we can choose some materials as rigid body which has higher stiffness. Some examples of material with higher stiffness are diamond, steel, rock, cast iron etc.

Sunday, October 8, 2017

Hello everyone. Today I am enlisting 5 best books for robotics. Nowadays, Robotics engineering is on peak. New researches and innovations are coming in a very frequent manner. The robotics even become a separate branch of engineering. Beside this many branches of engineering has a special subject of robotics in the course curriculum, whether it is mechanical, computer science, electronics, electrical engineering etc. robotics is a system which is a combination of these core engineering.
In the list of books given below the first three books is higher level books because these books start from basic theory and goes up to development phase with programming in robotics. Although the beginners can also prefer these books because there is a lot to learn in the field of robotics.
Last two books are based on building a real robot practically. These books do not have much theory part because the main focus is about building a robot. So it demonstrate all the requirements for this purpose.

1.Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control

by John J. Craig  (Author)

This book explains the robotics up to the development level. Generally the book is recommended for the one who wants to develop a robotic system i.e. book focuses on the application part. The students of robotics engineering must read this book.
The mechanical control and movement manipulation is described vey well. The book is consist of programming problems which is important to develop a robot.
In the new edition of the book a chapter of MATLAB is included. MATLAB is a simulation software used to test and simulate a model. In the robotic it may be beneficial to have the knowledge of MATLAB.
The book covers almost all the important aspect of robotics i.e. mechanics, control sytem, computer science, programming etc. most of the chapters are bases on mechanical manipulation or mechanics.
The book is helpful for graduate level student to an engineer of robot development.

2. Robot Building for Beginners, (Technology in Action) 

by David Cook (Author)

It was the best-selling books when the first edition as released. The best part of the book is, the book do not focuses much on the theory part of the robotics. The readers do not need to study those heavy engineering terms. The book is based on building a robot practically.
The various materials and tools required to build the robots are described in a simple manner. The books start from right here. Then the book explains how to make the prototype and then how to build the body of robot. Finally the whole system is built by making the circuit board to control the system.
The extract of the book is that you will learn the whole process of building a robot by building it by yourself, practically.

3. Industrial Robotics - SIE: Technology - Programming and Applications

    by Nicholas Odrey

This book is simply awesome and don’t need enough word to be explained how helpful this book is.
The book is the complete guide of building the robot.The book has in depth analysis of fundamental of Robotics. The book is mainly targeted to the beginners.
It focuses on technology, programming and applications of industrial robots which helps the readers in transition from classroom and lab environment into the applied and practical world of industry. the book offers different methods to build different types of robot because the book is featured with basic programming. The book is designed for learners and for beginners and for those who do not have any experience of robotics.

4. Probabilistic Robotics (Intelligent Robotics and Autonomous Agents series)

by Sebastian Thrun  (Author), Wolfram Burgard  (Author), Dieter Fox  (Author)

This is one of the best book of robotics. It covers almost all aspects of robotics and embedded system development. One can understand the robotics from basics by this book. This book is important for all the people associated with robotics field, whether they are teachers, students, engineers, developers, researchers etc. The book has explained advanced methods of estimation theory and probabilistic models. The various techniques and algorithms are given of relevant fields. The chapters are featured with many examples to understand the thing easily.

5. Robotics: Modelling, Planning and Control (Advanced Textbooks in Control and Signal Processing) 

by Bruno Siciliano and Lorenzo Sciavicco

The book mainly focus on the modelling of the robotic system and movement control of the robot modelling means the frame structure or the foundation of the robot. The book very finely demonstrate how the thing works in the robots. So the book is for application part of robotics. The various types of problems are explained in the books related with motion planning, motion control etc. the book also have the basic topics of mechanics like actuators and sensor, kinematics etc.
The book includes the chapter of MATLAB. This can be beneficial for those who want to learn simulation along with the robotics and embedded system.

This is it. The list is completed. Choose the appropriate book for yourself, learn about robotics and become the part of this world of innovation and revolution. the books enlisted here are bit expensive for Indian users but if you have passion to join the world of robotics then these are the best books of robotics..