Wednesday, November 29, 2017

Introduction to New Product Development (NPD) process

The overall development of a new product is not an easy task. There are many steps that needs to be followed very carefully for a successful development of new product. Here you will be familiar with all the necessary steps that every organisation follow to develop a new product. New part development is a long process, the key steps included in this process are recognition of need of product, design, testing, final manufacturing.
the overall process for new part development is given step by step below.

Need of the product or idea generation

For any new product development, the very first thing that is required is the base of product development and that is the initial recognition of the product. Recognition of product can happen by two means.

'Need of the product'- the need can be generated by any means such as we need to improve a system, we need to modify a product, we need a machine to make a manual system automatic and many more such needs can lead you to develop a new product. Based on the need the product is initialized.

the second cause of recognition for a new product is idea generation. What if you got an idea of a product that can ease a task. If you got an idea of a product that can save someone's precious time. What if you've got an idea that improve our working system to another level. The science and engineering is all about inventions and new ideas are always welcomed. in engineering reducing the work time is major thing for an organisation.

So this is how you can get recognition of a product. once someone gets frame of a product in his mind then only the next step can be taken. 

Product specification

In this step the idea will be analysed very carefully. It is specified that whether the idea is worthy to implement, how much change it can bring and is it necessary to bring such a new product.

The need of tools, equipments and other facilities would be determined. It should be analysed whether the company have required resources that can fulfill the requirement of tools manpower etc.

The customer's interest is a big factor. Product must be such that it can be sold easily within the available market of the organisation these are some factors which a new ideas should be comply with. To develop a successful product these factor must be expected to have positive feedback. Organisation's Team should decide these things and should take appropriate decision.

Ergonomics and Aesthetics

These terms are related with human factor and are extremely important. Economics is all about the study of human relation with a product. What affects a product will impose on the user of that product should be analysed. What improvement our product needs to better comply with the human use should we find out and implemented. In product design ergonomics is the assessment of human related with the product from the time of its initial recognition, then design and manufacturing of the product and till it reached to the consumers. The human factors should be considered even when the manufacturing of the product will happen that whether it is safe and comfortable for manufacturers and workers. Although mainly ergonomics deals with the user friendliness, ability and limitations of the product for user etc. 
Aesthetics is all about making the product visually correct and improve ergonomically.

Conceptual design and analysis

This is initial stage after designing such as drafting and concept testing. In the drafting the engineering drawing or design softwares can be used. Softwares like AutoCAD is very common for drafting in manufacturing industry. Drafting is an easy way to get a pictorial view of final product.

For conceptual testing and analysis certain properties of the product should be determined. It should be estimated that whether the consumer will understand importance of the product. Basically, is it helpful for them. why the consumer need that particular product. A survey between the targeted consumers is a good idea of getting these information as their feedback about the product.

Business analysis

in this step all the factors related with the business and marketing should be considered. Market is a broad aspect for making a product successful. Product needs to be made commercially profitable by business professionals. Costs of the product should be determined by the analysts such that it has less cost for consumers and earns best value for the company. analysts also forecast the expected sales of the product. Promotion of the product is a bigger part in marketing so it should be decided how much money would be spent on advertisement and promotion. All the strategies should be made by business analyst and followed by the organisation. These are some factors which company should study to make the product successful in the business point of view.

Detailed design

After the business Analysis The detailed designing of the product is done. Design and testing is very important to make a products functioning well while it is in consumers hand. The design engineers will perform this task by using their skills. It is quite a difficult task and takes lot of time. As per the required functioning of the product, the shape, size, weigh etc are decided. There are many designing softwares nowadays which plays a vital role in the designing. The softwares will help designing the product very accurately. Product will be visible as it will be after the manufacturing in these softwares. But designing is not only using  this software. Many more things needs to be decided and implemented such as the type of material based on strength, life of the product, manufacturing cycle etc. 
This steps should be accomplished carefully and proper time should be given to the design personnel. This step makes a product to perform at its best. The design failure can destroy the whole idea of product development.

Prototype development

After the design of a product. A prototype of the product is manufactured. The prototype is the replica of the product and generally, it is made without proper tools because tools are not developed before this step. So There are other ways of manufacturing by which a prototype will be developed. Prototype is used to Check the proper functioning and performance. Since the proper tools are not used the product components can be somewhat inaccurate dimensionally. It should be competent enough so that required inspection of functioning can be done. it's just to have some idea of the actual product. Design and production personnel should decide after inspection that the prototype is functioning as per Expectations or not and whether the product will be useful.

Testing and simulation

Testing and simulation are done to inspect overall performance of the product virtually. Virtually in the sense of using testing and simulation softwares for this purpose. The design of the product made on the designing software will be used and the simulation software and simulation will be performed. In the simulation the strength of the product, limits of stress strain, possible cause of failure can be determined. the important advantage of using testing software is that we can change some condition and test the product for these various conditions for example we can check strength of the product for various type of material, surrounding properties like pressure temperature etc. In this way the testing and simulation of a product can be performed. ANSYS is one of the example of these testing software. 

Tool design for manufacturing

When the product will get clearance after designing and simulation it is considered to be fit for manufacturing regularly. that is why we need proper tools of that product. At this time also the design personnel play a vital role to analyse the number of tools based on each component of the product. for every component of the product different tool can be designed. Once the designing of the tool is completed, the design will be provided to the tool manufacturing department who will manufacture the exact tool as per the design. Skilled worker are required for tool manufacturing because there is a need for extremely accurate dimensions of the tool for accurate manufacturing.

Tool design for assembly

The Assembly tools are different from the component manufacturing tools. generally component manufacturing tools are material removal or cutting tools but assembly tools are material joining tools. the tools should be designed such that all the components can be placed appropriately and the joining can be performed. The joints can be made by many ways. Welding, fitting, bolt joints, riveted joints etc can be used to join the various components of the product.

Commercialization of the product

Commercialisation of the product is the introduction of the product in the market in a bigger scale i.e. For selling purpose. The organisation Makes many efforts to promote its product. The electronic media, print media and Internet are the mediums on which the company invest lot of money for the advertisement purpose. The company organise advertisement campaigns in these mediums. Advertisement  makes consumers aware of the product and these are the ways by which the commercialization is done.

Market review

Once the product is reached to the consumers then the company will assess the total sale and profit of the product. That can help to decide the market environment. A company should organise a survey among the consumers to understand whether the consumers are satisfied with the product. the profit of distributors and retailers should also be kept in mind. These are some of the factors to understand the performance of the product on the basis of market reviews. necessary changes should be made to the product the if required after getting the market reviews. Monitoring of performance should be done continuously.

Conclusion

This whole procedure is for product development in automobile industry. The procedure can be different in Other industries. the organisation has to follow these steps for a successful creation of anew product. Product development is the real work for engineers and the organisation because new products sets the new trends. the overall profit of the organisation can be increased with the new product development.

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